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events in the classroom. Besides, the conceptual and practical differences between novice and expert teachers have been examined by a number of researchers. Pinpointing the qualities of expert practitioners in contrast to those new to the profession has yielded a number of insights that inform teacher training, administration, and teachers themselves. Those differences that have been empirically revealed through a number of qualitative approaches include the relationship between lesson plans and teachers’ implementation of them (Allwright & Bailey, 1991; Bailey, 1996; Peterson & Clark, 1978; Richards & Crookes, 1988)differing abilities as regards moment-by-moment decision making (Greeno, 1986)awareness and accommodation of learners as individuals (Johnson, 1996; Westerman, 1991), ability to shift content on the fly (Freeman, 1989) the number and quality of instructional patterns and routines in their repertoire (Johnson, 1992)and the degree to which planning is undertaken at a macro or micro level (Nunan, 1992,1996) In nearly all cases, novice teachers appear to respond less effectively to derailments during their planned lessons and have fewer contingencies to apply to novel situations.
Tsui (2003) asks how experienced teachers maintain enthusiasm for their work and why some become expert teachers while others remain experienced nonexperts. Huberman (1993) identifies three actions taken by teachers in non-novice stages of professional development that are likely to lead to the development of expertise and long-term career satisfaction.

• They shift roles. Experience teachers might teach a new subject or a new learner level. Alternatively, they might mentor or coach new teachers or take on other responsibilities. Fessler and Christensen (1991) found that involvement in professional development and assuming new roles could result in more enthusiasm and commitment among teachers.

• They engage in classroom-level experimentation. Experience teachers might change classroom routines or engage in action research (Chisman & Crandall, 2007).

• They participate in activities that challenge their knowledge and stretch their skills. Experience teachers learn more about a topic in their field, replace their customary materials or activities, or otherwise push themselves to the “edge of their competence,” where improvement occurs (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993, p. i).
Experienced teachers need opportunities for self-directed, collaborative, and reflective professional development that recognizes the rich knowledge base and intuitive judgment they have developed over time.
Studies have shown that experienced teachers share many attributes that distinguish them from novice teachers. Bastick (2002) found that experienced teachers in Jamaica were less extrinsically motivated (e.g., motivated by salary) and significantly more intrinsically motivated (e.g., motivated by the emotional rewards of working with children) than were novice teacher trainees.
Similarly, Bivona’s (2002) study of K-12 teachers’ attitudes found that teachers with more than 10 years of experience had more positive attitudes toward teaching than did less experienced teachers. In addition, Martin, Yin, and Mayall (2006) found that experienced teachers managed their classrooms more effectively than less experienced teachers. They took more control than did novice teachers in establishing classroom routines and monitoring group work and were less controlling and reactive in dealing with individual student behavior. Similarly, Gatbonton (2008) found that novice ESL teachers in K-12 programs were more preoccupied with student behavior and reactions than with pedagogy and student outcomes. Experienced ESL teachers were more concerned with ensuring that learning was taking place and less concerned about students’ negative reactions to class activities or to the learning process.
Studies have shown that experienced teachers share many attributes that distinguish them from novice teachers. Bastick (2002) found that experienced teachers in Jamaica were less extrinsically motivated (e.g., motivated by salary) and significantly more intrinsically motivated (e.g., motivated by the emotional rewards of working with children) than were novice teacher trainees.
Other effective factors in the development of pedagogical expertise are time and experience. Experienced should consider the domain specific knowledge through lengthy experience which is contextualized. Before entering the classroom, experts need to 1) thoroughly understand the content they will teach, and 2) plan one or more activities to teach that content (Berliner 2004).
During the stage of development, practical knowledge starts to build and is acquired slowly throughout a teacher’s career (Van Driel et al, 1998). Practical knowledge is action-oriented knowledge and is generally acquired without direct help from others. Furthermore, practical knowledge is personal and context-bound, providing teachers with the skills to succeed in their particular teaching contexts.

According to the research, experienced teachers have information-rich schemas allowing them to represent the complexities of the classroom in meaningful ways (Calderhead 1. , 1983)and possess metacognitive and monitoring skills enabling them to monitor the classroom situation, recognize problems, and make decisions to solve problems during teaching (Gagné, 1985)An experienced teacher not only knows more terms and facts about a domain than a novice knows, but also has developed a conceptualization of how those terms, facts, and concepts fit together into an overall schema (Walker, 1987)
Experienced teachers also attend to a larger number of instructional goals in making interactive decisions and use a larger range of instructional strategies and link actions to student cues in more complex ways than novice teachers (Fogarty, Wang & Creek, 1983)Novice teachers, on the contrary, fail to adapt instruction in response to student cues due to their less well-elaborated schemas (Gagné, 1985)According to Westerman’s (1991) study, novice teachers lack integrated knowledge about the overall curriculum and sufficient awareness of student characteristics, ignore students’ prior knowledge and behavior cues, and therefore cannot make the three stages of decision-making preactive, interative, and postactive dynamically interrelated, like the experienced teachers. In other words, novice teachers usually teach each lesson as a discrete entity without tailoring it to the characteristics of students because they cannot use various sources of information to form internal goals. In the context of English teaching, researchers have also been investigating the nature of the professional decisions made by teachers in planning and implementing their language programs. The findings of their studies suggest that the key factor leading to the teaching effectiveness of expert teachers may be the fact that expert teachers frequently utilize pattern matches to adjust their teaching during interactive instruction (McMahon, 1995)). According to Smith’s (1996) study, the experienced teachers’ decisions reveal an eclectic use of theory and a skilful blend of theoretical ideas with practical needs in the ESL instructional context. Milner (2001) has outlined the planning, thinking, and teaching of experienced English teachers and indicates that experienced teachers make responsive planning after learning about students’ interests and the practical nature of the environment and adapt lessons interactively. Conversely, Johnson (1992a) claims that novice teachers have not developed a schema for interpreting and coping with what goes on during instruction, nor do they possess a repertoire of instructional routines upon which they can rely.
It has been established that experienced teachers differ from novice teachers in their knowledge, skills, and beliefs. Thus, it may be inferred that they also differ from novice teachers in their professional development needs.
Experienced teachers di
ffer from novice teachers in important ways. They are likely to need professional development that affirms the knowledge, experience, and intuitive judgment they have cultivated during their careers. At the same time, teaching experience does not necessarily result in expertise (Tsui, 2003, 2005). Some experienced teachers are not as receptive to professional development as are new teachers, even though they might benefit from opportunities to reflect on and enhance their knowledge and refresh their enthusiasm for teaching (state adult education staff in two U.S. states, personal communication, March 6, 2010). Administrators and professional developers must recognize and address this potential resistance while remaining mindful of experienced teachers’ characteristics and needs.
2.5 Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
This research is informed by two theories – reflective teaching, and teacher self-efficacy.
The idea of reflective teaching was introduced by Dewey (1933) and re-introduced by Schon (1983). Akbari et al (2010) developed the theory by introducing five constituting constructs – practical, cognitive, affective, meta-cognitive, and critical.
Teacher self-efficacy was originally introduced by Bandura (1977). Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001) expanded the initial theory by introducing three constructs of self-efficacy – self-efficacy in student engagement, self-efficacy in instructional strategies, and self-efficacy in classroom management.
In this research, ELTRI, developed by Akbari et al (2010) based on his theory of reflective teaching was used to quantify the participants’ levels of reflection, and TSES, developed by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001) based on their theory of teacher self-efficacy was employed to measure self-efficacy levels of the participants.

2.6 Summary
In this chapter, the two theories pertaining to this study were

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